Pengaruh Produktivitas Kerja Unit-Unit Organisasi Bisnis Dan Kuantitas Sumber Daya Manusia Fungsi-Fungsi Pendukungnya Terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan

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Pengaruh Produktivitas Kerja Unit-Unit Organisasi Bisnis Dan Kuantitas Sumber Daya Manusia Fungsi-Fungsi Pendukungnya Terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan

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Title: Pengaruh Produktivitas Kerja Unit-Unit Organisasi Bisnis Dan Kuantitas Sumber Daya Manusia Fungsi-Fungsi Pendukungnya Terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan
Author: Satari, H. Lili
Abstract: During the past few years, the company performance trend was declining and it happened relatively so often that the aircraft completion targets were sliding out of schedule. Simulated by this background, the study was conducted at IPTN with the following problem's identification : "for the period of 16 years between 1981 to 1996, how were the influenceof the employee productivity of business units and the quantity of human resources of supporting functions to the performance of the company". This study has formulated a general hypothesis with four sub-hypothesis. In supporting this study, a great number of secondary and reliable data of the company, the business units and of the functional levels, relevant to the period of 16 years [1981-1996], have been successfully collected and all are data population in character. Based on the general hypothesis and the four sub-hypotheses, this study was then developed under the framework of way of thinking as indicated by the following four path analysis models: Model-1 [the Quantity of Human Resources of fabrication (X )], Model-2 [the Quantity of Human Resources of Production Directorate (X )], Model-3 [the Performance of Aircraft Services (Z)], and Model-4 [the Performance of IPTN (Y)], and either the quantity of human resources or the performance indicated by the four models are respectively representing the dependent variables. To meet the expected objectives of this study, Path Analysis is used, with main results summarized as follows : [1] the higher the employee productivity of business units and the more proportional the quantity against the demands of human resources of all supporting functions, the higher the influence to the performance of the company; [2] during the period of this study [1981-1996], the influence of the company's human resources quantity and of the business units productivity to the performance of the compant were low and/or not optimal in average; these conditions indicated that the human resources quantitywas not proportionally effective yat against the existing jobs, the outputs business units were also low, and the company in general was so inefficient thus suffering from heavy financial burdens for years; [3] to support the recovery efforts for better performance and competitive advantage in the long run of IPTN, comprehensive and corrective actions are needed, and the Combination Strategy [these are Strategic Turnaround and Operating Turnaround] may be considered to be implemented; [4] depending on IPTN's specific activities, strategically specific approaches may be considered, such as giving more strategically proportional power and authority to the Function of Human Resources; implementing Strategic Alliances with domestic industries for tools making and subcontracted parts and components, and also for weapon system [with Divestment Startegy as alternative]; as for development programs of new aiscraft including for N-250 and N-2130, the form of Consortium with some overseas aircraft industries may be considered, but for themanagement of Aircraft Services, due to the external and internal conditions of IPTN, may consider Combination Strategy of Porter's Generic Strategies, Concentration Strategy, and Market Development Strategy. Referning to a number of organizational theories and empirical experiences, the optimal number of human resources of IPTN between 1986 and 1995 should be 6875 persons, or 6439 persons should the company wish to maintain the performance achievement between 1976 and 1985. Besides having shown the justifications of the used theories as references, this study has also succeeded in defining some general management formulations.
Description: Dilatarbelakangi oleh produktivitas perusahaan yang menurun dan target produksi yang kerap tidak terpenuhi selama tahun-tahun terakhir, penelitian ini dilakukan di IPTN dengan identifikasi masalah: "bagaimana pengaruh produktivitas kerja unit-unit organisasi bisnis dan kuantitas sumber daya manusia fungsi-fungsi pendukungnya terhadap kinerja perusahaan dalam kurun waktu 1981-1996". Penelitian ini merumuskan hipotesis umum dengan empat sub-hipotesis, didukung oleh populasi data yang relevan di tingkat perusahaan maupun unit organisasi/fungsi selama 16 tahun [1981-1996]. Data dihimpun melalui observasi langsung dan wawancara dengan para fungsionaris terkait di tingkat divisi maupun fungsi, serta melakukan cross-checking kepada para fungsionaris di tingkat perusahaan. Atas dasar hipotesis dan sub-hipotesis, penelitian dikembangkan dengan kerangka pemikiran yang dirumuskan menjadi empat model analisis jalur yang terdiri dari : Model-1 [ Kuantitas SDM-Fabrikasi (X ) ], Model-2 [ Kuantitas SDM-Direktorat Produksi (X ) ], Model-3 [ Kinerja Aircraft Services (Z) ], dan Model-4 [ Kinerja IPTN (Y) ], yang masing-masing berfungsi sebagai dependent variables. Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang diharapkan, digunakan Path Analysis dengan kesimpulan pokok sebagai berikut : [1] semakin tinggi produktivitas kerja unit bisnis serta semakin proporsional kuantitas sumber daya manusia terhadap kebutuhan dari semua unit dan fungsi pendukungnya, semakin tinggi pengaruhnya terhadap kinerja perusahaan; [2] selama kurun waktu penelitian, pengaruh kuantitas SDM perusahaan dan produktivitas kerja unit-unit organisasi bisnis terhadap kinerja perusahaan rata-rata rendah dan/atau tidak optimal yang mengisyaratkan bahwa kuantitas SDM tidak proporsional terhadap pekerjaan yang ada, output unit-unit bisnis rata-rata rendah, dan perusahaan berada dalam kondisi inefficient serta menanggung beban financial berlebihan selama bertahun-tahun; [3] guna mendukung upaya penyehatan dan peningkatan kinerja serta daya saing perusahaan jangka panjang, dibutuhkan langkah korektif-komprehensif dan strategik dengan pendekatan Strategi Kombinasi : Strategic Turnaround dan Operating Turnaround; [4] pendekatan spesifik-strategik yang seyogyanya dipertimbangkan untuk ditempuh manajemen adalah : (a) pengemban fungsi strategik MSDM dismaping selayaknya memiliki otoritas memadai, juga memiliki kualifikasi seimbang dengan wawasan profesionalisme sesuai tuntutan paradigma baru ketenagakerjaan sebagai strategic resources; (b) kuantitas SDM perusahaan kurun waktu 1986-1995 yang optimal adalah 6875 orang [merujuk berbagai pandangan teoritis dan empiris], atau bila mempertahankan kinerja perusahaan yang dicapai periode 1976-1985, jumalh alternatif adalah 6439 orang; (c) outsourcing dalam bentuk Strategic Alliances dengan industri domestik nasional patut dipertimbangkan untuk tools making dan aircraft part subcontracts; dengan alternatif Strategic Alliances atau Strategi Divestasi untuk Sistem Senjata; serta Konsorsium dengan sejumlah aircraft industries luar negeri untuk program pengembangan pesawat terbang baru [termasuk untuk kelanjutan N-250 dan N-2130]; (d) sesuai kondisi internal dan eksternal yang dihadapi Aircraft Services, Kombinasi Strategi berikut selayaknya dipertimbangkan : Tiga Startegi Generik [Porter], Concentration Strategy [Market Penetration Strategy], dan Market Development Strategy. Disamping pembuktian atas kebenaran teori-teori yang digunakan sebagai sumber rujukan, penelitian menghasilkan pula sejumlah rumusan [dalil] manajemen yang bersifat dan berlaku umum.
URI: http://repository.unpad.ac.id/handle/123456789/4195
Date: 2002-02-25


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